North Collier Sleep Diagnostic Center
Jose R. Marquina, M.D., F.C.C.P.
1855 Veterans Park Dr
Naples, FL 34109
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a prevalent health hazard with serious health consequences. These include excessive daytime sleepiness, depression, cognitive disturbances, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and hypertension. People with OSA have almost three times more risk of developing Type II Diabetes.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea is a frequent partial or complete collapse of the airway during sleep. The muscles in the chest relax, making the airway more susceptible to collapse during inspiration. With the airway blocked breathing ceases (apnea), oxygen levels drop, heart rate may increase or decrease, and blood pressure increases. In order to breathe again, you briefly awaken, and sleep is non-restful.
Symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnea
- Excessive daytime sleepiness
- Loud snoring
- Increased night time urination
- Observed apnea events
- Choking or gasping while sleeping
- Feeling sleepy while driving
- Feeling sleepy while reading
- Morning headaches
- Dry mouth upon awakening
- Excessive sweating at night
- History of high blood pressure
- History of stroke
- History of heart attack
- History of heart arrhythmia
- Tiredness upon awakening
Most adults have experienced insomnia or sleeplessness at one time or another in their lives. An estimated 30%-50% of the general population are affected by insomnia, and 10% have chronic insomnia.
Insomnia may be caused by a host of different reasons. These causes may be divided into situational factors, medical or psychiatric conditions, or primary sleep problems. Insomnia could also be classified by the duration of the symptoms into transient, short-term, or chronic. Transient insomnia generally last less than seven days; short-term insomnia usually lasts for about one to three weeks, and chronic insomnia lasts for more than three weeks.
Symptoms of Insomnia
- Difficulty falling asleep or staying sleep
- Poor concentration and focus
- Impaired motor coordination
- Irritability and impaired social interactions
- Motor vehicle accidents due to falling asleep behind the wheel
Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder caused by the brain's inability to regulate sleep-wake cycles normally. At various times throughout the day, people with narcolepsy experience fleeting urges to sleep. If the urge becomes overwhelming, individuals will fall asleep for periods lasting from a few seconds to several minutes. In rare cases, some people may remain asleep for an hour or longer. In addition to excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), three other major symptoms frequently characterize narcolepsy: cataplexy, or the sudden loss of voluntary muscle tone; vivid hallucinations during sleep onset or upon awakening; and brief episodes of total paralysis at the beginning or end of sleep. Narcolepsy is not definitively diagnosed in most patients until 10 to 15 years after the first symptoms appear. The cause of narcolepsy remains unknown. It is likely that narcolepsy involves multiple factors interacting to cause neurological dysfunction and sleep disturbances.
Symptoms of Narcolepsy
- Excessive daytime sleepiness
- Cataplexy, which consists of a sudden loss of muscle tone that leads to feelings of weakness and a loss of voluntary muscle control.
- Sleep paralysis, which involves the temporary inability to move or speak while falling asleep or waking up.
Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD)
Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is repetitive cramping or jerking of the legs during sleep. It is the only movement disorder that occurs only during sleep, and it is sometimes called periodic leg (or limb) movements during sleep. "Periodic" refers to the fact that the movements are repetitive and rhythmic, occurring about every 20-40 seconds.
PLMD is also considered a sleep disorder, because the movements often disrupt sleep and lead to daytime sleepiness. PLMD may occur with other sleep disorders. It is often linked with restless legs syndrome, but they are not the same thing. Restless legs syndrome is a condition involving strange sensations in the legs (and sometimes arms) while awake and an irresistible urge to move the limbs to relieve the sensations. At least 80% of people with restless legs syndrome have PLMD, but the reverse is not true.
Symptoms of PLMD
- Leg movements involve one or both legs
- Typically the knee, ankle, and toe joints bend as part of the movements
- Movements vary from slight to strenuous, wild kicking, and thrashing
- Moments last about 2 seconds
- The movements are rhythmic and repetitive and occur every 20-40 seconds.
Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS)
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by unpleasant sensations in the legs and an uncontrollable urge to move when at rest in an effort to relieve these feelings. RLS sensations are often described by people as burning, creeping, tugging, or like insects crawling inside the legs. The most distinctive or unusual aspect of the condition is that lying down and trying to relax activates the symptoms. As a result, most people with RLS have difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep. Left untreated, the condition causes exhaustion and daytime fatigue.
Symptoms of RLS
- Strange itching, tingling, or "crawling" sensations occurring deep within the legs. These sensations sometimes occur in the arms.
- A compelling urge to move the limbs to relieve these sensations
- Restlessness - Floor pacing, tossing and turning in bed, rubbing the legs
- Symptoms may occur only with lying or sitting. Sometimes persistent symptoms occur that are worse with lying or sitting and better with activity. In very severe cases, the symptoms may not improve with activity.
- Sleep disturbances and daytime sleepiness are very common.
Copyright © 2008 North Collier Sleep Diagnostic Center